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我的世界观

                                                       —— 爱因斯坦              谢国芳(Roy Xie)译     

我们人类的命运是多么奇怪啊!我们中的每个人在这世上作短暂的逗留,为了什么目的我们并不知道,尽管有时候我们觉得自己感到了。但是用不着作更深的思索,从日常生活中我们就知道自己是为了别人而生存的——首先,是为了那些其微笑和安康完全决定了我们的幸福的人,然后,是为了陌生的大众,同情心的纽带把我们和他们的命运连系在了一起。每天无数次我提醒自己,我内心的和物质的生活都是建立在别人劳动基础上的,包括死去的和活着的人,所以我必须努力,为了能以同样的份量报答我所获取并仍在继续获取着的一切。我强烈地倾向于过一种朴素的生活,而且常常沉痛地意识到自己占用了同胞们过多的劳动成果。我认为阶级差别是不正当的,而且最终是靠暴力维持的。我同样认为一种朴实无华的生活有益于每一个人的身心。

  我根本不相信在哲学意义上的人的自由。每个人不仅是在外部的强制下、同时也是根据内在的需要行动的。叔本华的名言“人可以为己所欲,但不能欲己所欲。”从我的青年时代起对我就一直是一个非常真实的启示,面对自己和别人的生活的艰辛,它是持续不断的慰籍和宽容的不竭的源泉。这一认识仁慈地减轻了很容易把我们压得喘不气来的责任感,也防止了我们太跟自己和别人较真,并有助于养成一种特别给幽默以应有地位的人生观。

  探询生命的意义,或一个人自身生存的目的,亦或所有生物生存的目的,从一个客观的角度我一直都觉得是荒谬的。然而每个人都有某种理想,它决定了他的努力方向和判断。在这个意义上,我从来没有把安逸和快乐视作目的本身——我把这种伦理的基础叫做猪圈的理想。照亮了我的道路的理想自始至终都是真、善、美,它们一次又一次给了我欣然面对生活的新勇气。没有和意气相投人士的亲缘感,没有对客观世界和艺术与科学领域中那永不可及的目标的探索,人生在我看来将会是一片空虚。世人追逐的陈腐的目标——财产,外在的成功,奢华,在我眼里一直都是可鄙的。

 我抱有的极强烈的社会正义感和社会责任感总是很奇怪地和我显著地缺乏和其他人或社团发生直接接触的需要形成对比。我真正是一个“孤独的旅人”,从来没有全身心地归属于我的国,我的家,我的朋友,甚至于我的直系家属,面对所有这些关系,我从未丧失过一种距离感和一种对独处的需要——这种感觉与年俱增。一个人会强烈但不带遗憾地认识到与他人相互理解和共鸣的局限。毫无疑问,这样的人失去了一些天真和无忧;但另一方面,他得以在很大程度上独立于他的同伴们的意见、习惯和判断,从而避免了把自己内心的平衡建立在如此不可靠的基础上。

我们能拥有的最美妙的体验是神秘的体验,它是催生真正的艺术和科学的基本情感。谁要是体会不到它,要是再不能感到惊讶,再不能好奇赞叹,就和死了没有什么两样,他的眼睛是暗淡迷糊的。正是对神秘的体验——即使其中混杂着恐惧——才产生了宗教。认识到某种我们无法参透的东西的存在,对于最深奥的理性和最光辉灿烂的美的感知——它们只能以最原始的形式被我们的心灵把握——正是这种认识和感受构成了真正的宗教情结;在这个意义上,并且只有在这个意义上说,我是一个笃信宗教的人。我无法想象一个奖赏和惩罚他的创造物、或者有着我们在自己身上感受到的那种意志的上帝。我既不能也不愿意去设想一个在肉体死亡后继续生存的个人;让那些脆弱的人出于恐惧或者荒唐可笑的自我主义怀抱着这些想法吧。生命永恒的神秘,意识到并且得以一瞥现存世界不可思议的奇妙结构,加上为了理解在大自然中表现出来的至高理性之一部分——不管是多么渺小的一部分——而投入的努力,这些已经让我很满足了。

 

 

                      


      

    英文原文(Original English Text)

The World as I See it

by  Albert Einstein

   

  How strange is the lot of us mortals! Each of us is here for a brief sojourn; for what purpose we know not, though we sometimes think we sense it. But without deeper reflection one knows from daily life that one exists for other people – first of all for those upon whose smiles and well-being our own happiness is wholly dependent, and then for the many, unknown to us, to whose destinies we are bound by the ties of sympathy. A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving. I am strongly drawn to a frugal life and am often oppressively aware that I am engrossing an undue amount of the labor of my fellow-men. I regard class distinction as unjustified and , in the last resort, based on force. I also believe that a simple and unassuming life is good for everybody, physically and mentally.

  I do not at all believe in human freedom in the philosophical sense. Everybody acts not only under external compulsion but also in accordance with inner necessity. Schopenhauer ’s saying, “A man can do what he wants, but not want what he wants,” has been a very real inspiration to me since my youth; it has been a continual consolation in the face of life’s hardships, my own and others ’, and an unfailing well-spring of tolerance. This realization mercifully mitigates the easily paralyzing sense of responsibility and prevents us from taking ourselves and other people all too seriously; it is conducive to a view of life which, in particular, gives humor its due.

 To inquire after the meaning of life or object of one ’s own existence or that of all creatures has always seemed to me absurd from an objective point of view. And yet everybody has certain ideals which determine the direction of his endeavors and his judgments. In this sense I have never looked upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves – this ethical basis I call the ideal of a pigsty. The ideals which have lighted my way, and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully, have been Kindness, Beauty, and Truth. Without the sense of kinship with men of like mind, without the occupation with the objective world, the eternally unattainable in the field of art and scientific endeavors, life would have seemed to me empty. The trite objects of human efforts – possessions, outward success, luxury – have always seemed to me contemptible.

 My passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility has always contrasted oddly with my pronounced lack of need for direct contact with other human beings and human communities. I am truly a “lone traveler” and have never belonged to my country, my home, my friends, or even my immediate family, with my whole heart; in the face of all these ties, I have never lost a sense of distance and a need for solitude – feelings which increase with the years. One becomes sharply aware, but without regret, of the limits of mutual understanding and consonance with other people. No doubt, such a person loses some of his innocence and unconcern; on the other hand, he is largely independent of the opinions, habits, and judgments of his fellows and avoids the temptation to build his inner equilibrium upon such insecure foundations.

The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion whiter stands at the cradle of true art and true science. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed. It was the experience of mystery – even if mixed with fear – that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty, which only in their most primitive forms are accessible to our minds – it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute true religiosity; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man. I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the kind that we experience in ourselves. Neither can I nor would I want to conceive of an individual that survives his physical death; let feeble souls, from fear or absurd egoism, cherish such thoughts. I am satisfied with the mystery of the eternity of life and with the awareness and a glimpse of the marvelous structure of the existing world, together with the devoted striving to comprehend a portion, be it ever so tiny, of the Reason that manifests itself in nature. 

 


英文原文
(Original English Text)

   

    

 

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